Skip to main content

House panel approves peshmerga bill that Baghdad deems 'unwise and unnecessary'

The House Foreign Affairs panel voted to directly arm Kurdish forces.
Kurdish peshmerga take part in a training session during German Defence Minister Ursula von der Leyen's visit at a camp in Banslawa in Arbil, north of Baghdad, October 27, 2015. German Defence Minister Ursula von der Leyen said that the government will look into sending more weapons to Peshmerga fighting Islamic State in Iraq. Von der Leyen has been in Iraq since late, she also paid a visit to a camp in Banslawa where German soldiers are currently training around 30 young Kurdish fighters. REUTERS/Azad lash

A key House panel voted unanimously Dec. 9 to bypass Baghdad and directly arm Kurdish peshmerga forces in their fight against the self-proclaimed Islamic State (IS).

The Foreign Affairs Committee bill goes further than previous such efforts by instructing the US president to merely "consult" with Baghdad, effectively cutting Prime Minister Haider al-Abadi's government out of the equation. The distinction wasn't lost on the Iraqi Embassy in Washington, which slammed the bill as "unwise and unnecessary" ahead of the vote.

"The focus of all Iraqis and our allies at this time needs to be on defeating Daesh [IS]," the embassy said in a statement. "Promoting artificial divisions among Iraqis can only distract from the struggle against our common enemy."

Kurdish forces have long complained that the current system of transiting US weapons through Baghdad has caused unnecessary delays in getting them to the battlefield. The Iraqi government disputes this, as does the Pentagon.

The House bill, from panel Chairman Ed Royce, R-Calif., and ranking member Eliot Engel, D-N.Y., has been bouncing around for more than a year. It further demonstrates that Congress considers the Kurdish peshmerga forces to be the only reliable allies in the fight against IS and is willing to challenge the Iranian-backed government in Baghdad on the issue.

"The Kurds are the sole US allied force operating on the ground against [IS] in Syria and Iraq," Royce said during the markup. "For the last year and a half, we've had one effective fighter in this fight: It is the 160,000-strong peshmerga force."

The bill would make it official US policy for the next three years to "directly provide the Kurdistan Regional Government with advanced conventional weapons, training and defense services." Such weapons could include "anti-tank and anti-armor weapons, armored vehicles, long-range artillery, crew-served weapons and ammunition, secure command and communications equipment, body armor, helmets, logistics equipment, excess defense articles and other military assistance that the President determines to be appropriate."

The bill accuses Baghdad of having "constrained and delayed the emergency supply of weapons to the Kurdistan Regional Government." It argues that the Iraqi Constitution guarantees Kurdistan's "right to defend itself against the clear and present danger posed by [IS]."

Lawmakers insist that the bill isn't aimed at dividing Iraq, but past efforts have provoked a backlash from the country's Shiite majority.

In the spring, the House Armed Services Committee proposed in the initial draft of its annual defense bill to deem Kurdish and Sunni forces as "countries" for the purposes of US foreign military sales law. The committee quickly backed down after Iraqi Shiite cleric Muqtada al-Sadr threatened to retaliate against US interests in Iraq and the Obama administration urged a toned-down approach.

The Senate, meanwhile, voted 54-45 in June to arm the Kurds directly. The amendment to the must-pass Defense bill fell short of the 60 votes needed to pass after a lobbying blitz by the Obama administration.

The final defense bill, which President Barack Obama signed into law last month, merely authorizes the president to arm Kurdish and tribal forces "in coordination with coalition partners."

Meanwhile, Sunni forces have also been increasing their presence on Capitol Hill as they lobby lawmakers for similar legislation. Just before the Dec. 8 vote, a trio of Sunni leaders behind the al-Iraqiya political coalition wrote a letter to Royce and Engel urging them to also arm Sunni tribes battling IS.

"We strongly believe that Sunni communities in Iraq merit the same consideration, and encourage your committee this week to acknowledge the equal importance of ensuring that Sunni forces seeking to contribute to the defeat of Daesh [IS] also have the means to do so," they wrote, so far without success. "The Sunni Awakening of the last decade, which extinguished the threat posed by al-Qaeda in Iraq, stands as a vivid reminder of the successes we can achieve together through resolute action."

Engel told Al-Monitor that he hopes the bill could pass the House as early as Dec. 11 as lawmakers remain in town to wrap up spending legislation to keep the government open into next year. So far, no one in the Senate has introduced companion legislation.

Join hundreds of Middle East professionals with Al-Monitor PRO.

Business and policy professionals use PRO to monitor the regional economy and improve their reports, memos and presentations. Try it for free and cancel anytime.

Already a Member? Sign in


The Middle East's Best Newsletters

Join over 50,000 readers who access our journalists dedicated newsletters, covering the top political, security, business and tech issues across the region each week.
Delivered straight to your inbox.


What's included:
Our Expertise

Free newsletters available:

  • The Takeaway & Week in Review
  • Middle East Minute (AM)
  • Daily Briefing (PM)
  • Business & Tech Briefing
  • Security Briefing
  • Gulf Briefing
  • Israel Briefing
  • Palestine Briefing
  • Turkey Briefing
  • Iraq Briefing

Premium Membership

Join the Middle East's most notable experts for premium memos, trend reports, live video Q&A, and intimate in-person events, each detailing exclusive insights on business and geopolitical trends shaping the region.

$25.00 / month
billed annually

Become Member Start with 1-week free trial
What's included:
Our Expertise AI-driven

Memos - premium analytical writing: actionable insights on markets and geopolitics.

Live Video Q&A - Hear from our top journalists and regional experts.

Special Events - Intimate in-person events with business & political VIPs.

Trend Reports - Deep dive analysis on market updates.

All premium Industry Newsletters - Monitor the Middle East's most important industries. Prioritize your target industries for weekly review:

  • Capital Markets & Private Equity
  • Venture Capital & Startups
  • Green Energy
  • Supply Chain
  • Sustainable Development
  • Leading Edge Technology
  • Oil & Gas
  • Real Estate & Construction
  • Banking

We also offer team plans. Please send an email to and we'll onboard your team.

Already a Member? Sign in

Start your PRO membership today.

Join the Middle East's top business and policy professionals to access exclusive PRO insights today.

Join Al-Monitor PRO Start with 1-week free trial