Members of the Islamic State (IS) have often been described as modern-age Kharijites, in reference to the Muslims who rebelled against the ruling powers in early Islamic history. The Kharijite rebellions began in the 7th century, against the Umayyad Caliphate, and persisted against the Abbasid Caliphate.
Salafists such as the grand mufti of Saudi Arabia — who shares IS' religious principles, but not political views — call IS members Kharijites. Notably, these Salafists refused to pledge allegiance to Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, who surprised the other Salafist movements by declaring himself the caliph of all Muslims. Salafist movements never expressed a serious disagreement with IS until Baghdadi's announcement of the caliphate last June.