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4 ways Russia could retaliate against Turkey

Russia is mulling its limited options for dealing with Turkey without hurting itself in the process.
Turkish Prime Minister Ahmet Davutoglu addresses a news conference after meeting NATO Secretary-General Jens Stoltenberg at the Alliance's headquarters in Brussels, Belgium, November 30, 2015. REUTERS/Francois Lenoir  - RTX1WHB6

As the emotional heat from Turkey’s downing of a Russian military plane dissipates, Moscow has been pondering its retaliation. Doing real damage to Ankara, however, is proving easier said than done. Many of the drastic options initially proposed by some pro-Kremlin experts — such as arming the Kurds or retaliating militarily — have tuned out to be more nuanced than originally thought.

By backing down from his harsh rhetoric and seeking to meet with Russian President Vladimir Putin to calm escalating hostilities, Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan created the impression he was looking for an exit strategy in the emerging conflict with Russia.

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