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An Iranian man looks looks at currency exchange rates outside a shop in downtown Tehran on June 15, 2021. - Iran holds a presidential election on June 18, with ultraconservative Ebrahim Raisi, who heads the judiciary, most likely to win from the seven candidates. (Photo by MORTEZA NIKOUBAZL / AFP) (Photo by MORTEZA NIKOUBAZL/AFP via Getty Images)

Iranian exporters to suffer impact of frozen exchange rate

This photograph shows rolls of copper wires stored at the Nexans manufacture in Lens, northern France, on May 11, 2022. - The French cable company is the only one in its sector to have its own copper foundry in Lens. This plant represents a competitive advantage for Nexans at the dawn of an explosion in demand for electrical cables. (Photo by DENIS CHARLET / AFP) (Photo by DENIS CHARLET/AFP via Getty Images)

Saudi Arabia to ramp up copper mining to meet rising global demand

Algeria's Energy Minister Mohamed Arkab attends the opening session of the 24th ministerial meeting of the Gas Exporting Countries Forum (GECF), in the Capital Cairo on October 25, 2022. (Photo by Khaled DESOUKI / AFP) (Photo by KHALED DESOUKI/AFP via Getty Images)

Algeria, Sonatrach banking on high energy prices for 2023

An aerial view shows the Central Business District (Ruwi) in the Omani capital Muscat on April 9, 2021. (Photo by Haitham AL-SHUKAIRI / AFP) (Photo by HAITHAM AL-SHUKAIRI/AFP via Getty Images)

Oman to backpedal on key reforms in favor of social stability

Saudi fans react as they watch on a screen the Qatar 2022 World Cup Group C football match between their national team and Mexico, at the Marsool Park in Riyadh, on November 30, 2022. (Photo by Fayez Nureldine / AFP) (Photo by FAYEZ NURELDINE/AFP via Getty Images)

Saudi Arabia’s sports ambitions take center stage as MENA countries eye 2030 World Cup

Shoppers walk past jewellery shops in the Taiba gold market in the capital Riyadh on June 29, 2020, after authorities announced a 10% increase in the VAT rate, to reach 15%, starting from first of July. (Photo by FAYEZ NURELDINE / AFP) (Photo by FAYEZ NURELDINE/AFP via Getty Images)

Gulf tax landscape ushers in a new era

This picture shows Dubai's Financial Center in Sheikh Zayed road on October 2, 2019 in Dubai. - With the highest tower in the world, grand commercial centres and artificial islands, Dubai projects an image of prosperity, even as the city-state races to court investors to bolster a flagging economy. Despite boasting the most diverse economy in the Gulf region, the emirate's vital property, tourism and trade sectors have weakened in recent years. (Photo by KARIM SAHIB / AFP) (Photo by KARIM SAHIB/AFP via Gett

Riyadh unlikely to unseat Dubai as regional financial hub

Central Bank of Egypt Governor Hassan Abdalla speaks at the 2022 Annual Meetings Plenary during the 2022 IMF/World Bank annual meeting October 14, 2022 in Washington, DC. (Photo by Brendan Smialowski / AFP) (Photo by BRENDAN SMIALOWSKI/AFP via Getty Images)

New IMF loan is no quick fix for Egypt’s financial challenges

Morocco's sole oil refinery in Mohammedia, near Casablanca, on June 22, 2019. - Three years after it was liquidated for racking up billions of euros worth of debt, Morocco's sole oil refinery and one-time economic flagship is struggling to attract a buyer and survive. A self-declared "national front" -- comprising employees, economists and union leaders -- is leading the charge to salvage refining company SAMIR, while a trade court desperately seeks a new owner. (Photo by - / AFP) (Photo credit should read

Morocco, Tunisia to face bloated energy costs over 2023-2024

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